SUN VALLEY: ONE OF THE 9 BEST MOUNTAIN TOWNS IN AMERICA JETSETTER MAGAZINE17 OCTOBER 2017


Sun Valley’s origin story isn’t tied to mining or laying railroad tracks. Rather, it's the birthplace of resort skiing in North America, following its 1936 founding by lifelong skier and Union Pacific Railroad chairman W. Averell Harriman. Snow-starved Hollywood celebrities (like Cary Grant and Earnest Hemingway) reinforced Sun Valley’s rep as the place to see and be seen, and a whole new generation fell in love with the central Idaho region. Click the link below to read Jettsetter Magazine's full review. . .

How Americans lost the stars...and how we might be able to get them back THE WASHINGTON POST13 OCTOBER 2017


The United States is poised to get its first Dark Sky Reserve
under the pristine nighttime skies of central Idaho. Pending approval from the International Dark-Sky Association, the designation would recognize the region's clear skies, virtually untouched by light pollution, as 'possessing an exceptional or distinguished quality of starry nights and nocturnal environment'
and would encompass roughly 900,000 acres in central Idaho.

A key requirement of the designation is that communities within the reserve's boundaries, like Ketchum and Sun Valley, commit to minimizing their own light pollution. Most of those communities already have light pollution ordinances in place, making the region an ideal location for the country's first Dark Sky Reserve. . .

Joseph Gallivan interviews Dana Lynn Louis about 'La Grande Robe' KBOO RADIO26 SEPTEMBER 2017


Joseph Gallivan interviews artist Dana Lynn Louis about La Grande Robe, her installation at Front of House Gallery. The installation of two large dresses made from plastic rice sacks in Senegal comes with many stories behind them from Louis’s trip to Africa a year ago.

Says Louis, 'With La Grande Robe, my intention is for people around the world see this installation and appreciate the powerful, beautiful, creative women of Senegal, their work and, primarily, their humanity.'

THE BURDEN OF MEMORY ESSAY BY CYNDI CONN, Executive Director of Creative Santa FeAUGUST 2017


For days, weeks, and often months, Santa Fe and Los Angeles-based artist Lawrence Fodor meticulously re-creates historic masterpieces. He analyzes the composition, structure, color, symbolism, and meaning of venerated artists including Rubens, Michelangelo, Ramey, and Greco-Roman sculpture.  Fodor exquisitely paints two precise masterpieces as one spellbinding diptych. He then obscures one of the paintings into complete abstraction. In Fodor’s paintings the past is reconfigured, narratives are obliterated, and tragedies of the past whisper the possibilities of future transformation. . . 

The Beauty in Painting: A Time After Time SUN VALLEY PROPERTY NEWSAugust 2017 Issue


Lawrence Fodor is a man who knows no boundaries in the field of art. His bio says he began painting at 10 years old. He has a BFA from the Otis Art Institute of Los Angeles and though a good deal of his life has been spent making abstract paintings, his degree is in both paint­ing and printmaking. His talent stems from a deep and very broad arts education not so common for an abstract painter, and his career is both celebrated and extensive. . .

THE BUTTERFLY EFFECT GRAY MAGAZINE, #34JUNE – JULY 2017 ISSUE


From a triple-peaked roof to a Pinterest-worthy gold-leafed powder room, a Sun Valley dream house takes flight. Gretchen Wagner + Scape Design Studio’s southern Idaho mountain abode that integrates barn-wood, raw steel, and wall-to-wall windows to bring the outside in.

Featured in this story is work by two Friesen artists: the glass sculpture of Steve Jensen,
and the multimedia painting of Piper O'Neill.

'ECLIPSE: OBSCURED MEMORIES' TO OPEN AUGUST 4 LAWRENCE FODOR'S NEWEST BODY OF WORK01 JUNE 2017


'Historic works of art and significant celestial events have thrilled my imagination since I was quite young. I have drawn in museums from paintings and sculptures and I continue to explore, investigate and dissect historic and contemporary art. I have chased a solar eclipse, watched meteor showers through the night, experienced multiple lunar eclipses and seen ancient notations of these kinds of events on the walls of canyons and caves. I am always looking – everywhere – in an attempt to see,' says artist Lawrence Fodor. . .

A Family Wellness Odyssey: Arianna Huffington, Agapi Stassinopoulos & Isabella Huffington Sun Valley Property NewsJune 2017 Issue


Arianna Huffington, her sister, Agapi Stassinopoulos, and Huffington's daughter, Isabella, are all wellness advocates. The sisters inherited a solid spiritual foundation from their mother, who incorporated yoga and meditation into their Athens household. They will both be sharing their views about welness at this year's Sun Valley Wellness Festival, while Isabella simultaneously showcases an exhibit at Friesen Gallery in Ketchum. . .

Not making time for sleep? Arianna Huffington says it's fuel for success. IDAHO STATESMAN23 MAY 2017


Arianna Huffington will speak at the 20th Annual Sun Valley Wellness Festival on Memorial Day Weekend. ​Huffington’s sister, Agapi Stassinopoulos, clairvoyant and author of Unbinding the Heart, also will speak, and Huffington’s daughter, Isabella, will exhibit her artwork at Friesen Gallery, 320 1st Ave. N., Ketchum. The show Tiny Beautiful Things will be on display through Saturday, June 10. . .

Isabella Huffington Takes Millennial’s Look at World Eye On Sun Valley23 MAY 2017


Isabella Huffington’s Tiny Beautiful Things are like looking at a kaleidoscope. From a distance they resemble colorful kaleidoscopes that appear to be abstract paintings or mixed media pieces made up of extremely detailed geometric patterns. When viewers zoom in up close, they resemble kaleidoscopes filled with exhausting repetitions of tiny pictures of everyday objects like Lincoln pennies and champagne bottles. 'You can get lost in them,' said Gallery Owner Andria Friesen. 'They’re evocative and exquisite.' . . . 

Sun Valley in the Summer is an Adventurer's Dream Come True TRAVEL + LEISURE MAGAZINE02 MAY 2017


Travel + Leisure magazine took some time to dig in to the common Sun Valley, Idaho phrase that goes, 'come for the winter, stay for the summer.' Their findings reavowed that 83340 is more than just a skiing hotspot. Read T+L's itinerary for a perfect summer day in Sun Valley. . .

Lakewood woman will be running in the Boston Marathon The News Tribune15 APRIL 2017


Susan Russell Hall smiles when she runs. She exudes joy. She’s grateful for every stride of a running career that didn’t start until her second half century. 'You’re never too old to have a second childhood,' Hall said.
Hall started running in 2009. This year, the 60-year-old Lakewood resident is qualified to run four of the six World Marathon Majors, starting with Monday’s Boston Marathon. Up next will be Berlin, Chicago and New York. She hopes to eventually add Tokyo and London. . .

How to Transform through Art While Traveling Thrive Global04 April 2017


Jumping into an 'open studio' session at Lauren Mantecón’s studio in Santa Fe involves more than art, and includes some wine, à la liquid courage, to delve into your emotions, and some artisanal chocolate to boost your senses. Lauren guides you through the two hour session and helps you to present your feelings on paper, and create a masterpiece that is unique from a variety of mediums including paint, chalk, pencil, and pastels. Just when you think you are done, she guides you through further exploratory, and continually creates an environment where you are safe to experiment with colors, shapes, feelings, and more. . .

CONTEMPLATIVE PRACTICE SUN VALLEY CENTER FOR THE ARTS31 MARCH – 23 JUNE 2017


What is the connection between art and contemplation? For centuries artists have created religious objects meant to offer a contemplative or devotional experience. But how do art and contemplation intersect outside established religious traditions? This BIG IDEA project at The Center in Ketchum uses work by artists engaged with contemplative practices as the basis for a larger investigation of the role of meditation and mindfulness in our world today. Featuring the work by artists Dana Lynn Louis, Pegan Brooke, Meg Hitchcock and Serra Victoria Bothwell Fels.

Scape: Lawrence Fodor Artillery Magazine30 March 2017


While abstract art often begins with inspiration and develops spontaneously, Lawrence Fodor approaches his canvasses in a different manner, basing his paintings on historic works. Loosely connected to abstract expressionism, Fodor works in a style in which non-specific figurative components dominate his paintings. Early in his career, he spent numerous hours among great master paintings and sculptures in European museums, copying laboriously. He has long admired Peter Paul Rubens, Jean-Étienne Ramey, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Leonardo Da Vinci, Théodore Géricault, JMW Turner, the Laocöon, and ancient Greco-Roman sculptures. . .

Arianna Huffington's Artist Daughter Town & Country29 March 2017


Like her media mogul mom Arianna, Isabella Huffington shares a passion for communicating. However, instead of revolutionizing the way we consume news, her preferred medium of breaking boundaries is collage art. 'For most people, the idea of doing an oil painting or a sculpture is very threatening, but the idea of doing collage is something we all did as kids,' says Huffington, who describes her process as 'collapsing the boundaries of fine art and the everyday.' This spring also marks two other milestones for the young artist: Her first solo shows. On May 3, her exhibit entitled Women in Politics opens at Lower East gallery Anastasia Photo, and in June her more signature works, which she calls 'bright and happy pieces,' go on display at the gallery connected to Rebecca Minkoff's LA store. . .

A Ballerina’s Gift to Her Hometown: A Summer Ballet Festival THE NEW YORK TIMES02 MARCH 2017


This summer, Isabella Boylston, the American Ballet Theater principal, will realize a dream, to bring ballet to her hometown, Sun Valley, Idaho. Ballet Sun Valley, a three-day event with performances Aug. 22 and 24 at the Sun Valley Pavilion, and free classes for children on Aug. 23, will feature dancers from major companies, including Ballet Theater, New York City Ballet, the Royal Ballet, San Francisco Ballet and the Mariinsky Ballet. She is hoping that Ballet Sun Valley will turn into an annual event. Along with works by George Balanchine, Alexei Ratmansky, Christopher Wheeldon and Justin Peck, Ms. Boylston will dance the part originally created for Sara Mearns in Mr. Peck’s The Bright Motion. . .

BIRD BY BIRD: DANA LYNN LOUIS AT FRIESEN GALLERY SUN VALLEY PROPERTY NEWSMARCH 2017 ISSUE


If ever there was an artist with revolutionary tenacity, it would be the multitalented painter, printmaker, photographer and activist, Dana Lynn Louis.
Louis, whose interdisciplinary work to-date has spanned both small- and large-scale installations have called upon all manner of media––among them drawing, painting, photography, sculpture, glass-blowing and video projection––is the newest addition to the roster of impressive contemporary artists at Friesen Gallery. This March, Louis makes her Sun Valley début in simultaneous installations at Friesen and The Sun Valley Center for the Arts in Ketchum that examine the correlation between creative output and contemplative practice. . .

Friesen Gallery Celebrates 30 Years IDAHO MT. EXPRESS04 JANUARY 2017


In 1986, now Sun Valley resident Andria Friesen was directing an art gallery in Nevada when she decided to strike out on her own. 'I’m not too proud to say I didn’t know anything when I started at 26. I don’t know why someone didn’t say, What are you doing?' she told the Idaho Mountain Express in a 2011 interview. 'I’m glad I didn’t, because knowing what I know now, there’s no way I would have done it.' . . .

'LUSTRARE' AT FRIESEN
'LUSTRARE' AT FRIESEN A SOLO EXHIBITION BY ARTIST NICOLE CHESNEY01 December 2016


This December, Friesen Gallery embarks on its thirtieth year, an anniversary traditionally represented by the pearl. To mark the occasion the Gallery will showcase an exceptional new body of work entitled 'Lustrare' from artist Nicole Chesney. Widely recognized for her oil paintings on etched, mirrored glass, Chesney acts with mastery, using the properties of light and reflection to cultivate a sense of seductive mystery and profound beauty. In addition to her site-specific large-scale commissions for 7 World Trade Center in New York City and Massachusetts College of Art in Boston, Chesney’s paintings are exhibited and collected internationally. Awards received by this impressive artist include the UrbanGlass Award for New Talent, The Corning Museum of Glass Rakow Commission and a Jutta Cuny-Franz Foundation Supporting Award. 'Lustrare' is a luminous celebration of this milestone in Friesen’s history.

PHRANC'S TOYS! SUN VALLEY PROPERTY NEWSJANUARY 2017 ISSUE


Toys. The great unifying force. Who doesn’t break into a grin at the memory of a favorite childhood plaything? Even the terrible Burgermeister Meisterburger had a softening moment when handed a yoyo in the holiday classic, Santa Claus is Coming to Town. If these past few months have you feeling a little Bergermeister-ish, be sure to attend Phranc’s 'TOYS' show, part of Friesen Gallery’s 30th anniversary celebration on December 29. 'Making toys for this show let me time travel,' says Phranc. 'I have created toys that I once had. Toys I wished for but never got. Toys my father had. Toys my brother had. Toys my friends had. Toys that I dreamed of having.' . . .

PRESTON SINGLETARY TO PRODUCE EXHIBITION WITH MUSEUM OF GLASS 'Raven and the Box of Daylight'TO OPEN IN 2018


Raven and the Box of Daylight is the Tlingit story of Raven and his transformation of the world—bringing light to people via the stars, moon, and sun. The exhibition, which features a dynamic combination of artwork, story-telling, and encounter, takes visitors on an experiential journey with Raven, and the transformation of darkness into light. Artworks by Preston Singletary, inspired by the creation myth and Tlingit art, are enhanced by exhibition text and audiovisual experiences. . .

The 16 Best Places to Live in the U.S. OUTSIDE MAGAZINE16 AUGUST 2016


It’s easy to fantasize about living in one of these 16 adventure meccas, but to really understand how great they are, you have to be on the ground. Sun Valley, Idaho, right next door to Ketchum, was America’s first ski resort and the site of the world’s first ski lift, developed in 1936 from a conveyor used to move bananas off ships. Skiing is still central to the community’s spirit. With its ritzy history and fine-dining and drinking establishments plus hundreds of miles of manicured ski slopes and singletrack, Ketchum has a glamorous face. . .

SUMMER OF GLASS AT CROCKER MUSEUM SQUARECYLINDER04 August 2016


'Glass for the New Millennium: Masterworks from the Kaplan Ostergaard Collection' highlights contemporary studio glass works from around the world. Strong works, all abstract, come from Jan Exnar, Steve Klein, Nicole Chesney and Claire Falkenstein, (the subject of a retrospective coming to Crocker this fall). Of these, Chesney’s 'The Soul of a Breath' stands out. Bathed in shimmering gold, grey and silver, the four panels of the piece change color anamorphically as you move from side to side. Bubbles on the surface, along with spectral amoeba shapes dusted in chalky white, evoke a living ecosystem whose vaporous quality calls to mind Turner and Rothko. . .

Preston Singletary at Friesen Gallery08 July 2016


'For nearly three decades, Preston Singletary has straddled two unique cultures, melding his Tlingit ancestry with the dynamism of the Studio Glass movement. In the process he created an extraordinarily distinctive and powerful body of work that interprets cultural and historical images in richly detailed, beautifully hued glass.' — Melissa G. Post, Former Curator at the Museum of Glass (Tacoma, WA)

A MATTER OF THE MIND: INTERVIEW WITH LAUREN MANTECÓN KVSF RADIO21 MAY 2016


Join host Mark Perry and his guest Lauren Mantecón in exploring how evolution and creativity are evolving. Lauren is a fine artist and art teacher who guides creativity through tools and processes for 'un-learning' the blocks to our natural and authentic selves. She also draws from her study, practice and guidance through astrology and the Human Design system. . .

Lauren Mantecón's Shape Shifting: A Review Visual Art Source06 APRIL 2016


In Lauren Mantecón's current exhibition, 'Shape Shifting,' the artist continues a career-spanning exploration of those dreamlike zones within the human psyche and spirit where material and immaterial commingle. Throughout the exhibition, Mantecón’s brushwork pivots between translucence and hazy opacity, suggesting a kind of mysterious knowledge,
barely discernible, just coming into focus. . .

MAESTRO LINO TAGLIAPIETRA ON FRIESEN GALLERY 'A Fascinating Spot in Sun Valley'JANUARY 2016


Friesen Gallery is known for setting remarkable exhibitions and for sharing the meaning and value of art in the world. Andria Friesen and the gallery staff work everyday to showcase incredible work by talented creators and arrange different shows to meet the artists and explore their work. 'Lino is important on so many global levels. He has changed the future of glassblowing forever. He is a true artist,' says gallery owner, Andria Friesen. . .

Chaco Canyon: Wandering the Past in the Present By Lawrence FodorDecember 2015


Lawrence Fodor recounts his camping, hiking and creative journey to Chaco Culture National Historical Park in New Mexico with five other artists in May 2015. A descriptive and illustrated narrative that includes entries drawn from his journal, photographs he took and watercolors he painted on location in Chaco Canyon and the surrounding mesas. There is magic at work in Chaco Canyon.
It is enigmatic, powerful and sustained. . .

STUDIO VISIT: MANTECÓN STUDIOS THE MAGAZINENOVEMBER 2015 ISSUE


Says artist Lauren Mantecón, "The idea of 'creative block' is a left-brain concept. Amateur or expert, we are constantly taking in information. How we choose to use the fruits of our curiosity might result in doing something creative or not. And how long we need to integrate and process information is personal and different in everyone. The unreasonable pressure to constantly be delivering creative product is the real 'entirely imaginary and inflating disease' afflicting many artists." . . .

Ethereal Afterlight: Friesen Gallery Introduces Sun Valley to Nicole Chesney SUN VALLEY PROPERTY NEWSAUGUST 2015 ISSUE


When Andria Friesen took me to a back room of her gallery where two works by Nicole Chesney hung on a wall, I felt as though I was let in on a secret. In front of me was an otherworldly, glowing, seemingly alive painting. The subtle transformation that developed from varying degrees of shade and angle gripped me. I stayed there for 20 minutes playing with the light switch and moving around the room as my field of vision and perception of depth and color changed. . .

RICHARD JOLLEY: LARGER THAN LIFE The Knoxville Museum of Art12 May 2015


Richard Jolley's sweeping glass installation, Cycle of Life: Within the Power of Dreams and the Wonder of Infinity, is one of the largest figurative glass-and-steel assemblages in the world. Commissioned in 2009 especially for the Knoxville Museum of Art, Cycle of Life is a seven-part narrative that took the artist and his team of studio assistants more than five years to create. It reveals Jolley's exceptional artistic rigor and vision—an aesthetically stunning masterwork that is also an engineering marvel. . .

ISABELLA HUFFINGTON DEBUTS AT FRIESEN GALLERY
ISABELLA HUFFINGTON DEBUTS AT FRIESEN GALLERY SUN VALLEY WELLNESS FESTIVAL05 MAY 2015


Huffington’s works are surely reminiscent of these two glorious icons and yet uniquely hers with Sharpie-colored shapes furiously buzzing in highly detailed patterns. Her swarms of images are reminiscent of both organic clusters and feverish hallucinations. 'I like using one idea, like birds or circles, and morphing and stretching it across many different pieces and seeing how it can change and be reimagined,' says the artist. . .

APPARATUS: IN A PAINTING STUDIO By Lawrence FodorJANUARY 2015


Look around a painter's studio – it will be a reflection of the painter – a mirror of the way the artist sees, hears, thinks and relates to the world and his surrounds. This collection of photographs of studio vignettes and trenchant impressions in the studio of Lawrence Fodor is accompanied by an insightful essay on the artist's work and process by Aline Brandauer and quotes by the artist. . .

IT HAPPENED IN SUN VALLEY: PHRANC AT FRIESEN SUN VALLEY PROPERTY NEWSJANUARY 2015 ISSUE


Visual artist and musician Phranc is as iconic as the art she creates. Rising to fame on the Los Angeles punk rock scene in the 1980s, Phranc toured as the opening act for many well-known bands of the era, including a long stretch with Morrissey (The Smiths). While better known then for her musical prowess, Phranc was also making her mark as an emerging pop artist with shows in New York and L.A. These days, Phranc is is still producing music, and her paper and cardboard sculptural art is gaining serious traction, with comparisons to the work of Andy Warhol and Claes Oldenburg. . .

Art Glass Offers Clear Advantages to Collectors THE WALL STREET JOURNAL21 September 2014


Since the launch of the Studio Glass movement in the 1960s, glass has slowly crossed the species barrier from craft to fine art. Today, examples of glass art include bright colors and arresting shapes, works that resemble paintings in glass, and objects both strange and familiar encased in glass. There are newer artists as well whose pieces fetch prices from $5,000 to $15,000, including Amber Cowan, whose floral hangings use recycled mid-century pressed glass, Norwood Viviano, whose castings map the decline of industrial cities including his hometown of Detroit, and
Nicole Chesney, who paints mirrored glass plates evoking stormy skies. . .

NICOLE CHESNEY AT MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS, BOSTON A contemporary take on landscape in the Linde Family Wing for Contemporary Art16 AUGUST 2014 – 30 JUNE 2018


This new installation in the Linde Family Wing for Contemporary Art’s Eunice and Julian Cohen Galleria offers a contemporary spin on landscape art. Ten works, including sculptures, paintings, installation, and video art, present contemporary art as the latest chapter in the story of landscape art through the ages, as told by the MFA’s encyclopedic collection. Works include a number of new acquisitions that have never before been on view, as well as new commissions by Jason Middlebrook and Anne Lindberg. Other works on view in the installation include 'Garrowby Hill' (1998) by David Hockney and 'Verity (magenta blue), Repose, and Verity (blue green gray)' by Nicole Chesney. . .

AMERICA REFLECTED: NICOLE CHESNEY'S LUMINESCENCE GLASS QUARTERLY MAGAZINESUMMER 2014, #135


Capturing an ephemeral moment through which we can view our culture and ourselves, the surface treatments of the Luminists and Abstract Expressionists are similarly vulnerable in that they bear the particular markings of individual artists. Both the Luminists and the Abstract Expressionists sought to express a reflection, be it of their place, or of their inner selves, on the painting's surface. Building on both of these uniquely American approaches to painting, Rhode Island-based artist Nicole Chesney probes reflection, perception, and light in her paintings on glass, fusing a Luminist interest in light with an Abstract Expressionist focus on the psychology of an individual. . .

Ketchum Named One of ‘America’s 20 Best Small Towns’ SMITHSONIAN MAGAZINEAPRIL 2014 ISSUE


Smithsonian Magazine has named Ketchum as one of America’s 20 Best Small Towns to Visit in 2014. 'Present-day Ketchum is a celebrated center for arts and culture in the Wood River Valley,' the article points out. 'The town is home to 20 art galleries and boasts a year-round lecture series, as well as various musical and theatrical productions at the Sun Valley Center for the Arts.' . . .

AGAIN: REPETITION, OBSESSION AND MEDITATION LANNAN FOUNDATION20 APRIL 2013


Again features artworks where repetition, obsession or meditation, are key elements to the artist’s process, sometimes obvious in the resulting artwork, sometimes not. Whether what compels each is expressed as a life-long obsession with a subject, a repetitive action, or a meditative practice, the artists in this exhibition – Sol LeWitt, Agnes Martin, Lawrence Fodor, Susan York, Jorge Pardo, Chuck Close and others – repeat themes, motions, motifs and materials again and again, over and over. . .

Lawrence Fodor: NATIONAL REVIEW Art in AmericaOctober 2009


Santa Fe-based abstract painter Lawrence Fodor has shown his process-oriented work extensively on the West Coast for nearly three decades. His most recent output was the subject of two shows in Santa Fe, one last winter at the Lannan Foundation and another this summer at Linda Durham. Both venues featured Fodor’s 'Kōan Box' series, in which the artist applies layers of oil, wax and alkyd to the surfaces of cigar boxes. At Linda Durham, over 20 of these dazzling objects were interspersed with paintings from his ongoing 'Ligature' series. . .

KŌAN BOXES: PAINTINGS BY LAWRENCE FODOR T.H.E. MAGAZINEMAY 2009


Lawrence Fodor’s poetic and serene installation of Kōan Boxes at the Lannan Foundation carries us beyond reason, reconnecting us to intuition, memory, emotion, sensation and mystery. Drawing on the Buddhist practice of training the mind, these small paintings push us towards a precipice where all methods of rational or linear thought no longer function. Fodor urges us to jump into empty space, into an atmosphere where we may open our minds, our pulses, our beings. . .

Simple Complication The Santa Fe Reporter04 February 2009


Lawrence Fodor knows a strange but useful secret. It’s not a very well-hidden secret; it’s more of a wisdom that anyone can grasp from a sudden intuition or a moment of derailed thought that opens a new door. Almost like a kōan. In fact, Fodor’s secret is that there is no difference between a kōan—the quirky, traditional dialogue structure of Zen practice—and a painting. The best contemporary paintings elude the rational analysis that critics and curators and the like insist on leveling. Instead, these paintings persist through intuition, through disruptions of the expected, through playfulness, through the artist’s legerdemain, just as kōans have been doing for well over 1,000 years. . .